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Compression springs

Configuration

According to the shape of compression spring, they are divided to cylindrical, conical with regular and irregular pitch and tilt angle, shaped (prismatic, barrel etc.). According to the type of bearing plane, cylindrical and conical springs resisting compression are divided to: springs with open end coils used for shaft operation; springs with closed ground or sharpened end coils; springs with closed unprocessed end coils. Among conical springs there are distinguished springs with constant tilt angle and springs with regular pitch. Cylindrical and conical springs are divided according to direction of coiling into: right coiling – coils are twisted clockwise; left coiling – coils are twisted anticlockwise.

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Compression springs

Cylindrical 
“Ural Spring Plant” Ltd. produces hot and cold formed compression springs made of wire 1.5 to 50 mm in diameter. Compression springs are those that resist compression and take up longitudinal loads which compress the whole spring. The main deformation mode of coils is torsion. Cylindrical coil springs made of round steel wire are the most applicable, furthermore we produce spring made of materials of various sections: square and rectangular. 
Alternatives of manufacturing of inactive coils.
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Steel grades. 
The following steel grades are used in spring production at “Ural Spring Plant”: St.65-85, 60-70Г, 55-60С2, 55-60С2А, 50ХГА, 60С2ХА, 60С5ХФА, 51ХФА. 
How to count the number of coils.
Position the spring with the flat end toward you and rotate it about its axis (center axis along the spring length) so that the coil end is positioned at “12 o’clock”. Now notice the direction which wire is twisted – if clockwise, then it is “right” coiled spring, if anticlockwise – then “left” coiled spring. Count the number of wire turns within the accuracy of 0,25 of a coil. The number of turns is “total quantity of coils” (nl). Check whether the spring end squeezes up against previous ones. Such coils are called “closed end turns”. They are not engaged in spring action and designed for spring stability. Total quantity of coils (nl) = number of active coils (пО) + number of closed end turns. Thus, subtracting the number of “closed end coils” from the “total quantity of coils” you will get the number of “active coils” (пО), i.e. the number of coils that directly influence spring power characteristics. 
Grinding of spring ends.  
Spring ends may be either ground or, by customer’s request, only bent. Grinding may be fully automatic, semiautomatic or manual. Springs made of wire less than 0.05 mm in diameter are not subject to grinding. Spring coating. There are two purposes of spring coating: to protect springs from corrosion and to improve surface appearance of springs. Coatings vary in resistance: from resistance to standard environment conditions to resistance to corrosive environment. Depending upon customer’s request, springs produced at “Ural Spring Plant” may be coated or not as specified in the drawing. We can provide the following types of coating: paint coating (ПФ-115 (PF-115), НЦ 132 (NC 132), АФ «Щит» (AF “Shchit”)); chemical oxidation with oiling; polymeric powder coating; galvanizing.
Squeezing and hardening of springs. 
Spring squeezing is an additional stage of quality control that defines the conformity of spring characteristics to drawing specification. Such procedure is not typical for the most of spring manufacturers on the home market. By squeezing, irregularity of coil pitch and insufficient spring end closing are eliminated, as well as some stabilization is reached, which may be considered final after performing of overall control testing. As a result of squeezing, spring free height becomes shorter, besides compression value of spring depends on torsional stress, wire diameter, thermal mode etc. Spring prices depend on the following parameters: product configuration (parameters), number of products ordered, product material, terms of manufacturing. 
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Conical and shaped springs. 
“Ural Spring Plant” produces conical and shaped compression springs according to Customer’s drawings.  
“Ural Spring Plant” Ltd. uses the following steel grades in production: St.65-85, 60-70Г, 55-60С2, 55-60С2А, 50ХГА, 60С2ХА, 60С5ХФА, 51ХФА.
Conical compression springs, due to their design shape, can be compressed to the state when coils come into contact, i.e. to the height Н = nd. When cylindrical shape is changed by conical, spring can be compressed to the value equal to wire diameter. Conical coil springs possess higher lateral bending resistance then cylindrical ones

Manufacturing of conical and shaped springs.  
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Conical springs are coiled in such a manner that while compressing one coil goes into another one leaving a very small gap. On loading of conical spring, the highest stress appears in the coil with biggest radius. Accepted load on spring is determined from parameters of this coil.  
Conical spring represents flattened cone that possesses elastic strain features. Such a spring changes its dimensions under force application and returns to its initial state after cessation of application.
There are distinguished conical springs with various types of ends:  
opened coils (not pressed down);
closed coils (ground or sharpened); 
closed unprocessed coils. 
Spring coating. 
There are two purposes of spring coating: to protect springs from corrosion and to improve surface appearance of springs. Coatings vary in resistance: from resistance to standard environment conditions to resistance to corrosive environment. Depending upon customer’s request, springs produced at “Ural Spring Plant” may be coated or not as specified in the drawing. We can provide the following types of coating: 
paint coating (ПФ-115 (PF-115), НЦ 132 (NC 132), АФ «Щит» (AF “Shchit”)); 
chemical oxidation with oiling; 
polymeric powder coating; 
galvanizing. 
Spring prices depend on the following parameters: 
product configuration (parameters), 
number of products ordered, 
product material, 
terms of manufacturing.
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